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  The Event of Ghadir and its Importance    
 

Muslims consider every aspect in the life of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) to be very significant. For not only the Prophet's statements are away from any carnal desires and is related to the origin of Revelation according to the holy Quran2, but also, His actions show the true way of life3. Throughout his life, specific events happened that were of great importance, of those one is known as Ghadir, held in a location called Ghadir Khumm.

 The event of Ghadir consists of several aspects that give it a brighter value than the rest of the events.  The references for the actual event, the large number of narrators, and the Islamic scholars that witnessed and reassured of the event all prove Ghadir to be one of the very few events in Islam to have such strong base in belief. 

While looking at narrators of Hadith of Ghadir, we will see Prophet Muhammad's (PBUH&HP) progeny as the first narrators.  They are Imam Ali (PBUH), Fatima Al-Zahra (PBUH), Imam Hassan (PBUH) and Imam Hussain (PBUH). Furthermore one hundred and ten companions (Sahabi)4 of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) narrated this saying, such as:

1-Abubakr ibn-Abighohafah  2-Omar ibn-Khattab  3-Othman ibn-Affan  4-Ayeshe bent-Abibakr  5-Salman Farsi  6-Abazar Ghafari  7-Ammar Yaser 8-Zobeir ibn-Avam  9-Abbas ibn-Abdolmuttaleb  10-Jaber ibn-Abdullah al-Ansari  11-Umme Salame  12-Abdollah ibn-Omar ibn-Khattab  13-Abouhorayre  14-Zeid ibn-Argham

The interesting point is that all of these companions were present when the event took place, therefore, they have narrated the saying directly. Of the others who have narrated the Hadith of Ghadir, were 83 people from Tabe'in5. Some of them  are:

1-Asbagh ibn-Nobate 2- Salim ibn-Abdollah ibn-Omar ibn-Khattab 3- Sa'eed ibn-Jobeir 4- Soleim ibn-Gheis 5- Omar ibn-Abdolaziz (the Umayyad caliph)  .

After Tabe'in, Sunni scholars from second up to the thirteenth century (which were 360( have narrated the Hadith; three of the Sunni Sahih authors (from the six6)and two of their jurisprudence leaders7 are amongst those8. The precise number of Shia scholars who have narrated this saying is not known, however, some of the most popular ones are:

 1-Sheikh Kulayni 2-Sheikh Sadooq 3-Sheikh Mufid, and 4- Sayyed Mortada 9.

Hence, among Sunni scholars and their focus on the authenticity of the narration shows that a great number of scholars observe it as a "Hassan" Hadith10, 11, while some Sunni scholars believe the narration as a "Sahih"12 saying, 13 and some  other think of it as a Mutawatir14 (Frequent) saying15. All of Shia scholars believe the saying of Ghadir is a Mutawatir narration.16, 17

       

  Consequently, one of the most important historical events of Islam among all Muslims as a definite phenomenon is indeed the event of Ghadir Khumm.

 The descent of two verses of the holy Quran - (6:67)18 and (6:3)19 about the event of Ghadir has increased its importance and has made it eternal. These two verses have been interpreted by famous Shia and Sunni commentators, for the event of Ghadir.20, 21 Comparing the content and expression of these two verses with the other verses of the Holy Quran, we can conclude that the manner in which these two verses are presented are unique amongst if not all, but most of the other verses in the Holy Quran.  While reciting the holy Quran, each Muslim might wonder deeply about these verses and ask himself these questions:

- What is this important matter that Allah (SWT) has promised to keep His Messenger safe upon preaching this message?

- What is this important matter that if preached, brings about the completion of the blessings upon the people, perfection of the religion?

- What is this important matter that if the messenger of Allah (PBUH&HP) did not preach this message, His 23 year mission of His prophet hood would become null and he would not have accomplished His mission?  Thus the day will be obviously; the day in which upon the revelation of this verse and the preaching of such an important message, will be a day to complete religion, please Allah, and hold as a very important event amongst Muslims.22

According to what has been stated above, it can be concluded that in addition to the historians who as of their profession have a close attention to event of Ghadir23, also the scholars of Hadith consider it as a considerable and important Hadith.24 For being a scholar of Hadith, one should specify the authenticity of Hadith and contemplate the concepts of it. Therefore Ghadir as a definite and frequent Hadith has been specially posed in different books of Hadith. After the revelation of two verses about this event which suggests a unique concept and has an outstanding expression among other verses, Ghadir has become the issue of many discussions in the interpretation books25.  Relying on the concepts of these verses and the great religious effects they convey, Mutikallemin (theologians) have especially considered this event 26. Even linguists have paid special attention to this important event while expressing the meaning of "Ghadir", which refers to a location27. During the 14 centuries, Islamic literature and Muslim poets have described this great event in their works and poems until present.28

Thus far the importance of the event of Ghadir has been stated in this article.  In the next section of this article we would like to study this great Islamic event and this era of the Prophet's (PBUH&HP) life to briefly investigate the various aspects of Ghadir.  First we will give an overview of what has happened on the day of Ghadir accepted amongst majority of Muslims, then a content of the narration of Ghadir in details, and finally show the results of this great event that should be considered by all Muslims. 

 

The Event of Ghadir

In the year 10 A.H, the great Prophet (PBUH&HP) was ordered by the Almighty Allah to make a pilgrimage to Mecca to perform Hajj. Thus it was necessary to inform all the people of this pilgrimage29, even some messengers were sent to different regions to inform the people.  The messengers sent by the Prophet (PBUH&HP) told people that it is the last pilgrimage of the Prophet (PBUH&HP), and it is a very important journey. They added that anyone who can afford to come should accompany the Prophet (PBUH&HP) in this journey.  Though the great Prophet (PBUH&HP) had in the former years performed the rituals of Umra Mofrade with the accompaniment of some of His companions30, this time according to divine will, He decided to perform and teach people the rituals of Hajj for the first and last time.  When people became aware of this journey, a large crowd gathered in Medina to accompany the Prophet (PBUH&HP) in performing Hajj. Historians and scholars name this journey as Hajjah al-Wida31, Hajjah al-Islam, Hajjah al-Balagh32, Hajjah al-Kamal, and Hajjah al-Tamam33.

On Saturday the 24th or 25th of Zi al-Qa'deh, the great Prophet (PBUH&HP) left Medina for Mecca to perform the rituals of Hajj. The Prophet's family (Ahl al-Bayt) (PBUT), most emigrants (Mohajir) and Helpers (Ansar) all accompanied the Prophet (PBUH&HP) on this pilgrimage. Records show that 70,000 to 120,000, or even more left medina to go to Mecca for Hajj34. Others joined the Prophet (PBUH&HP) from various cities and even residents of Mecca were waiting for the Prophet's (PBUH&HP) arrival.  Before the Prophet's (PBUH&HP) decision to perform Hajj, he had sent Imam Ali (PBUH) to Yemen to propagate Islam and teach the divine teachings of Islam. When Imam Ali (PBUH) became aware of the necessity for accompanying the Muslims in Hajj, he left Yemen with a group of people to join the Prophet (PBUH&HP) just in time for the start of the rituals.35

The messenger of Allah (PBUH&HP) started the rituals of Hajj in a mosque named Shajareh.  Though prior to this trip, the Prophet (PBUH&HP) had explained the practices of Hajj literally, now was the opportunity to teach the rituals in action. Also in different stages the Prophet (PBUH&HP) preached people and informed them of the other divine orders. 

Once the rituals for Hajj were all performed, the Prophet (PBUH&HP) along with a large number of companions left Mecca. On the way to Medina they reached a region known as Ghadir Khumm.

Ghadir is a watershed and Khumm means pool36. Ghadir Khumm is the name of a pond that forms because of rain.  Ghadir is 3-4 kilometers away from Johfeh and Johfeh is 64 kilometers away from Mecca. Johfeh is a center in which people of Egypt, Medina, Iraq and Damascus begin the path toward their own cities37Ghadir Khumm was a place for pilgrims to rest a short while with the trees and water, but the weather was extremely hot and they wouldn't stay long.38

On Thursday, 18th of Zi al-Hajjah (10 March 632), the Prophet (PBUH&HP) arrived at Ghadir Khumm. Before the inhabitants of Damascus, Iraq, and Egypt were separated from the caravan, Gabriel descended this verse upon the Prophet (PBUH&HP): "O Messenger! Deliver what bas been revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message, and Allah will protect you from the people".39This verse commanded the Prophet (PBUH&HP) to preach what had previously revealed regarding Ali (PBUH). The Prophet (PBUH&HP) commanded the caravan to stop at that location and for those who have gone ahead to return to Ghadir Khumm, while those who had not reached the Prophet (PBUH&HP) to move faster towards Ghadir Khumm40. Then He ordered for some of His followers to prepare a space below some of the old trees and remove the thorns and rough stones from that place. At noon, the Prophet (PBUH&HP) performed the prayer with a great population of Muslims at that area in the terrible hot weather41, 42.  The burning hot weather forced people to place part of their garment on their heads and some under their feet to protect it from the burning stones on the ground.43  They also put a piece of cloth on the branches of the old trees to make a barrier for the Prophet (PBUH&HP) against the hot sunshine. When the prayer was finished, there was a pulpit prepared from the camel saddles, in which the Prophet  (PBUH&HP) ascended to give his famous sermon.  To make sure all the people heard what the prophet said, some of the followers repeated the Prophet's (PBUH&HP) sermon.

A part of the sermon is stated below:

  "Thanks and praise is exclusively for Allah and we seek help from Him, have faith in Him, and seek protection to Him from our desires and wrong doings.  The Lord in which if misleads people, no one will be able to lead, and whom if leads, no one can mislead.  I profess that other than God, no other is worshipped and Muhammad is the slave and the messenger of Him. O People, the merciful and the aware Lord informed me that I too will be called (toward Allah) and I will respond (His invitation) 44.  I will be responsible and you too will be responsible. So what would you say (regarding my invitation and responsibility)?"

Those present answered, "We witness that you communicated your prophet hood, worked hard, and warned us. We wish that Allah will give good reward to you."45

The prophet said, "Do you not witness that there is no worthy of worship but Allah, and Muhammad (PBUH&HP) is His servant and Messenger?  (And do you not witness that) the heaven and hell of Allah is true, death is true, the day of Judgment will arrive without doubt, and (that) Allah will raise those who are in the graves?"

The audience said, "Yes, O Messenger of Allah, we witness."

The Prophet (PBUH&HP) then continued and asked the people, "Do you hear my speech?"

The audience replied, "Yes, O Messenger of Allah"46.

Then the Prophet (PBUH&HP) said: "I will attend the Pond (of Kawthar) before you and you will meet me beside there.  The width of this pool is from Bosra (a city near Damascus) to San'a (a city in Yemen). Within, there are silver cups as much as the stars in the sky.  So see how you will treat Thaqalain (Two weighty things) after me."

At that time, someone said:" O, Prophet! What do you mean by Thaqalain?"

Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) said:" The greater weight is the Book of Allah (holy Quran). A part of it is in the hand of Allah and the other part is in your hands.  If you hold on to it (and use its guidance) you will not deviate.  The other weight and smaller is my progeny. The All-Aware Subtle Allah informed me that these two weights will not separate until they meet me by the Pond of Kawthar, 47 and I wished this from Allah. So don't exceed from these two for you will perish and do not fall behind from these two for you will perish."48

Then Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) raised Imam Ali's (PBUH) hands so that all people could see him beside Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) 49. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) asked the people: "O People, Aren't I prior and superior to you than yourselves?"50, 51

People replied :"Yes, O Messenger of Allah!" 52
Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) continued:
"O People! Surely Allah is my Master, and I am the Master of all believers."53
Then he said:
"He of whom I am the Master (Mawla), of him Ali is the Master (Mawla)".54
He repeated this sentence 3 times55.
Then he said:
"O God! be the friend of him who is his friend and be enemy of him who is
enemy to him.56Help those who help him.Forsake those who forsake him57".
Then the Prophet (PBUH&HP) addressed the people:
" O people! Tell this message to those who are not present."58
Before the crowd scattered, Gabriel descended again and revealed this verse:
"Today I have perfected your religion and completed my bounty upon
you, and I was satisfied that Islam be your religion."59
Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) then said:
"Allah is the great, upon the accomplishment of the religion, completion of
the blessings,
and satisfaction with my prophet hood and Ali's (PBUH) wilayat."60

 

After that, people congratulated Imam Ali (PBUH). Abubakr and Umar were of those who congratulated him before the other companions. Umar repeatedly told Imam Ali (PBUH): "Well done Ibn Abitaleb. You have become Master of me and every believing man and woman."61

Then, Hassan Ibn Thabit, the famous poet, asked permission from Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) to say a poem about what he had heard from Him about Imam Ali (PBUH). Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) said: "Say with the blessings of Allah!" Hassan addressed the magnates of Quraish: "You, the magnates of Quraish! Listen to my speech, certified by Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP)", then said:

"On the day of Ghadir, their Prophet announced loudly in Ghadir which is in Khumm, to which I wish all people had been there and seen him saying that: "Aren't I your master?"  People answered him without glossing over: "Allah and you are our master." And if you had been there, you couldn't have found anyone disagreeing. Then He told Ali (PBUH): "Stand up; for I found you worthy of being the people's Imam and guide after myself (by the command of Allah)."62, 63

What has been stated in this section was a brief narration of Ghadir. The number references give more information on its Sunni and Shia commentators. In the following section, we will have a detailed study of the Ghadir narration.

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1)1. Because of the different ways and many sources that reference the Ghadir narration, we have only mentioned a certain number of the narrators and sources. Due to abbreviations, some sources are not mentioned in every section.
 
2)2. In the fifty-third chapter of the Holy Quran, Surah Najm, Allah (SWT) says, ‘‘Nor does he speak out of desire. It is naught but revelation that is revealed,’‘ (The holy Quran, 53:3 & 4).
 
3)3. One of the ways Muslims are able to know the divine rules and commandments are through researching and reading about the Prophet’s Sunna (tradition) and character sketch. The Prophet’s (PBUH&HP) character sketch and Sunna is greatly treasured by all Muslims, for it is a way of learning the divine commandments. This matter can be sin in different parts of the Quran, for example in Chapter 33, Surah Ahzab, in verse 21, Allah (SWT) says, ‘‘Verily in the Messenger of Allah ye have a good example for Him who look unto Allah and the Last Day, and remember Allah much.’‘ Because in this verse, Allah (SWT) presents the Prophet (PBUH&HP) as an absolute example, therefore all aspects of Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH&HP) character i.e. his sayings and actions are considered to be role models for His followers. (Except some special matters that only are specified for the Prophet (PBUH&HP) on the behalf of Allah (SWT). Obviously the people are not obliged to obey these special orders. An instance of these special matters is the night Salat (prayer) which was obligatory for the Prophet (PBUH&HP) while it is not, for other people.)
 
4)4. The term Sahaba or Sahabi is used for those who met Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) at least once in their lifetime, and benefited from His presence.
 
5)5. The term Tabe’in is used for those who were not able to percept the presence of the Prophet (PBUH&HP), but were the companions and associates of the Sahaba.
 
6)6. Three of the Tabe’in were:
a)Abu Isa, Muhammad ibn Isa Tirmidhi in Sahih Tirmidhi
b)Abu Abd al-Rahman, Ahmad Ibn Shu'ayb Nasae’i
c)Hafidh Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Yazid Qazwini (Known as Ibn Majeh) in Sunan Ibn Majeh
 
7)7. The two were:
a) Abu Abdullah, Ahmad ibn Hanbal Sheybani (The Imam of Hanbilah)
b) Abu Abdullah, Muhammad ibn Idris Shafi'ei (The Imam of Shafi'eiah)
 
8)8. In this article due to brevity, these references shall suffice. For more detailed information on the narrators of Hadith of Ghadir amongst the Sahaba, Tabe’in, and the Ahl al-Sunna Scholars (Sunni school of thought), you may refer to the valuable book of al-Ghadir, by the great scholar Amini, volume one, p.s 14-159.
After conveying the narrators of Hadith of Ghadir, the great scholar, Allamah Amini introduces the books the Sunni schools of thought have written on Ghadir al Khumm distinctly. He presents the different logics made on the event of Ghadir throughout history (narrations are brought from the Sahaba, some Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphs, and many more….), then creates a thoroughly thought argument on the narrations of Ghadir. In the next few chapters Allamah Amini names the many poets both those who were present at the event of Ghadir and other present day poets who have written this event in terms of poetry (referenced in their own works) all so this event would not be underestimated in the Muslim community (Umma).
Other than the valuable book of Al-Ghadir, numerous other books are written on this issue as well, such as the noble book Aqabat al-Anwar, compiled by Mir Hamed Hussain Hindi, which discusses the narrations of Ghadir in a more detailed fashion than the book Al-Ghadir. Fadail al-Khamsa in Sihah Sitta (six authentic books considered by the Sunni school of thought) compiled by the great scholar Firuz Abadi and other books as such have studied the authenticity and reasoning of this noble narration.
 
9)9. These scholars have mentioned the narration of Ghadir in their many literary works, but for brevity we will only name one work of each scholar:
a)Sheikh Kulayni in his book al-Kafi
b)Sheikh Sadooq in his book al-Amali
c)Sheikh Mufid in his book al-Irshad
d)Sayyid Murtada in his book al-Shafi

 
10)10. A Hassan narration is considered to be in the second position of authenticity after Sahih. It is a narration that the narrators have been found to be apart from numerous error, fabrication, and debauchery. (Introduction of Ibn Salah, p. 175)
 
11)11. Of these great scholars we can point out several like Abu Abdullah Ganji, author of Kifayat al-Talib. Furthermore, some Ahl al-Sunna scholars have considered the narration of Ghadir as ‘‘Hassan’‘, while others like Ibn Hajar’s book Tahdhib al-Tahdhib just considered it as completely Sahih.
 
12)12. According to the Ahl al-Sunna, a Sahih narration is one which has been narrated from Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) (or one other) through a chain of authentic narrators that are considered righteous and just, and no other Hadith can be found to contradict it. In other words one cannot find any deficiencies within it. (Preface of Ibn Salah)
 
13)13. Amongst these scholars were
a)Abu Isa Tirmidhi in his Sahih Tirmidhi (v.5, chapter 20-Virtues of Ali ibn Abi Talib- Hadith #3713),
b)Abu Abdullah Hakim Naishaboori in al-Mustadrak A’la al-Sahihain,
c)Tabari (based on the narration of Dhahabi in Tadhkirat al-Hufadh, vol.2, p.713, Hadith #728)
d)Shams al-Din Dhahabi has written a book specifically about the narration of Ghadir. (Ibn Kathir has noted in his book al-Bidayah wa al-nihayah, vol. 5, pp. 228-229 that ‘our sheikh Abu Abdallah Dhahabi has considered this narration of Ghadir as Sahih)
e)Abu al-Hassan Maghazili in his book ‘‘Manaqib’‘ has narrated from his professor, Ibn Hajar Haythami in his Sawaiq al-Muhriqah (p.43)
f)Ibn Abd al-Birr in Al-Isti’ab
All of these scholars have considered the narration of Ghadir as Sahih.
 
14)14. According to the science of Hadith, Mutawatir is a narration that because of the many times and different ways it has been narrated is considered away from error and doubt. Therefore Mutawatir is a narration that has been definitely narrated from Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) and or others, (Tahanawi, Rules in the Science of Hadith, pp. 32-33).
 
15)15. From amongst the ancient and Salaf scholars of the Sunni school of thought, scholars like Dhahabi (another narration of Ghadir, according to Ibn Kathir’s Al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah, vol. 5, p.233), Jalal al-Din Suyuti, Shams al-Din Jarazi Shafi’ei author of Asna al-Matalib and …. From amongst the contemporary scholars, scholars like Diya al-Din Muqbili in his book- Al-Abhath al-Muta’addida fi al-Funun al-Muta’addida, Shahab al-Din Abu al-Faydh Hadarmi in his book Tashnif al-Adhan, and many others have considered the narration of Ghadir as Mutawatir.
 
16)16. From amongst these, scholars like Khaja Nasir al-Din Toosi in his book Tajrid al-I’tiqad (Maqsad Khamis Fi al-Imamah, p.226), Sheikh Toosi in his book Talkhis Al-Shafi (vol. 2, p.168), and Allama Hilli in his Manahij al-Yaqin (p.475) shall be pointed out. For example Sheikh Toosi explains in his Al-Shafi, ‘‘that Shiites have all narrated this Hadith and considered it Mutawatir.
 
17)17. Let it be noted that the different recorded narrations and narrators of Ghadir, despite its many numbers are not all available for our use. Willingly or unwillingly those few have been destroyed and we have no way of reaching them. For example Sulayman Hanafi, of the Ahl al-Sunna in his book Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah (vol.1, p.34) narrates from Abi al-Ma’ali Juwayni (nicknamed as Imam al-Haramayn and the professor of Abu Hamid Ghazali): ‘‘In Baghdad I saw a book in the hands of a bookbinder on the different narrations of Ghadir. On the book it had written 28th Volume for the different ways of Prophet Muhammad’s narration, ‘whomsoever I am his Master, (then) ‘Ali is his Masterr’. The 29th volume was also present.’‘ Or even Ibn Kathir (of the Ahl al-Sunna scholars of the 8th century) narrates in his Al-Bidayah wa Al-Nihayah (vol.5, p.227) that Tabari (one of famous Ahl al-Sunna scholars of the 4th century, author of the History and Interpretation of Tabari) showed high attention to this narration/Hadith and wrote two distinct books on the different terms and ways that the narration of Ghadir has been transmitted, (at this moment neither of these books are available).
 
18)18. ‘‘O Messenger! Deliver what bas been revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message, and Allah will protect you from the people; surely Allah will not guide the unbelieving people.’‘ (The holy Quran, 5:67)
 
19)19. ‘‘… This day have I perfected for you your religion and completed My favor on you and chosen for you Islam as a religion …’‘ (The holy Quran:5:3)
 
20) 20. From amongst the interpreters and scholars of Ahl al-Sunnah, scholars like, Muhammad ibn Jurir Tabari in his book Al-Wilayah, Abu al-Hassan Wahidi Neyshaboori in his book Asbab al-Nuzul, and Hakim Haskani in his book Shawahid al-Tanzil, and from amongst the Shiite scholars some examples like Sheikh Toosi in his book Tibyan, Tabarsi in his book Majma’ al-Bayan, and Allamah Tabataba’ei in his book Al-Mizan all have narrated that the revelation of verse 67 of chapter 5 (Surah Ma’ida) was about the event of Ghadir.
 
21)21. Some examples from amongst the Shiite scholars were Sheikh Toosi in his book Tibyan, Tabarsi in his book Majma’ al-Bayan, and Allamah Tabataba’ei in his book Al-Mizan; and examples from amongst the Ahl al-Sunnascholars were Muhammad ibn Jurayr Tabari in his book Al-Wilayah, Hakem Haskani in his book Shawahid al-Tanzil, Khatib Baghdadi in his book, Tarikh (Vol.8, p.290), and Hamwayni in his book Fara’id al-simtayn, all have narrated that the revelation of verse 3 of chapter 5 (Surah Ma’ida) was about the event of Ghadir.
 
22)22. A more detailed research and interpretation will be discussed in the future article, Imamah in Quran.
 
23)23. From amongst these and other famous Ahl al-Sunna historians were, Mas’udi author of Marawwij al-Dhahab, Biladhuri author of Ansab al-Ashraf, Ibn Asakir who compiled a collection of history, Khatib Baghdadi who also compiled a collection of history, Dhahabi author of Tadhkirat al-Hufadh, Ibn Athir author of Asad al-Ghabah, Suyuti author of Tarikh al-Khulafa, Shahristani author of Milal wa Nahl. Some from amongst Shiite historians were Ya’qubi author of Tarikh Ya’qubi, Sheikh Mufid author of Irshad, and Tabarsi author of A’lam al-Wara.
 
24)24. Amongst narrators who narrated Ghadir in their texts, we can refer to some of Sunni scholars such as Ibn Majeh in his Sunan, Tirmidhi in his Sunan, Nasa’ei in Sunan al-Kubra, Imam of Shafe’eiyah Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Idris al-Shafie’i (according to Ibn Athir in al-Nahayah, vol 5, p. 228), Imam of Hanabilah Ahmad Ibn Hanbal in his Musnad and also in the book of al-Manaqib.
Moreover, some of Shiite scholars who narrated this Hadith in their books are Sheikh Sadooq in his al-Amali, Sheikh Kulayni in his al-Kafi, Sheikh Toosi in his al-Amali.
 
25)25. Amongst the Sunni interpreters of Quran who have analyzed the event of Ghadir in relative verses, we can mention: al-Tabari in his interpretation; Wahidi in Asbab al-Nuzool; Fakhr al-Razi in Tafsir al-Kabir; Qurtubi in his interpretation; Suyuti in Durr al-Manthur and many others. Some of Shiite scholars who have mentioned the event of Ghadir in their interpretations are Sheikh Toosi in al-Tibyan, Tabarsi in Majma' al-Bayan and Allamah Tabataba'i in al-Mizan and many others.
 
26)26. Amongst Mutekallemin of Ahl al- Sunnah, who analyzed and narrated Ghadir contrary to their desire, were Sayyed Sharif Jurjani in Sharh al-Mawaqif; Suyuti in Arba'in; Aloosi in al-Li'ali; Taftazani in Sharh al-Maqasid; Qooshji in Sharh al-Tajrid, etc. From the Shiite Mutekallemin who have narrated the event of Ghadir examples like Khajeh Nasir al-Din Toosi in Tajrid al-I'tiqad; Allamah Helli Sharh Tajrid al-I'tiqad; Sayyed Murtada in al-Shafi; Sheikh Toosi in Talkhis al-Shafi can be seen.
 
27)27. Among Lughawiyin and scholars of ‘‘word’‘ who have analyzed the event of Ghadir we can refer to Ibn Athir in al-Nahayah, Humawi in Mu'jam al-Buldan, Zubaydi Hanafi in Taj al-'roos and many others.
 
28)28. Many poets of different Islamic sects have mentioned Ghadir in their poems during past 14 centuries. Ghadir is one of the few events that have been constantly repeated numerous times in many Islamic poems. Some of these poets are: Hassan Ibn Thabit, A'mroo A'as, Kumayt Ibn Zayd Asadi,
Sayyed Him'yari, Di'bil Ibn Ali Khaza'ei and …
 
29)29. Sunni references: Tarikh al-Islam by Dhahabi, section of ‘‘Maghazi’‘ p. 701;
al-Muntadham, vol. 4, p. 5; Sirat al-Halabiyah, vol. 3, p. 308.
Shiite references: al-Irshad, p. 91; A’lam al-Wara, p. 137.

 
30)30. One of these journeys took place one year after the treaty of Hudaybiyyah (a peace treaty between Muslims and non-belivers of Mecca.)
 
31) 31. This journey was named ‘‘the last Hajj’‘ or ‘‘Hajjat al-wida' ‘‘ because Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) had said that this journey was going to be His last pilgrimage. About two months after this journey, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) passed away.
 
32)32. Apparently this name was given since the verse of ‘‘Tabligh’‘ (5:67) descended at the end of this journey and during the event of Ghadir.
 
33)33. This name was given after the verse in chapter M’aidah (5:3) descended at the end of this journey. ‘‘al-Itmam’‘ means completion; the meaning was taken from this verse.
 
34) 34. Sunni references: Tadhkirat al-Khawas al-Ummah, p. 30. Sirat al-Halabiyah, vol. 3, p. 308; Sirah Ahmad Zayni Dihlan, vol. 3, p. 3.
Shiite references: al-Ihtijaj, vol. 1,p. 56 (Tabarsi narrates that the number of companions with Prophet (PBUH&HP) were more than 70000)
 
35) 35. Sunni references: Sahih al-Bukhari, vol. 2, Chapter (Bab) 81, Hadith #2, p.159 and Kitab al-U'mrah and Bab Umratu al-Tan'im, p. 4; Sahih al-Muslim, vol. 4, Bab Ihlal al-Nabi wa Hadiyah, Hadith #1, p. 59. al-Bidayat wa al-Nahayah, vol. 5, p. 227; Sirat al-Halabiyah vol.3 pp.318,319,336
Shiite references: al-Irshad, p. 92; A’lam al-Wara, p. 138.

 
36) 36. Lisan al-Arab, root of Gadr, under word of ‘‘al-Ghadir’‘
 
37) 37. Mu'jam al-Buldan, under word of Johfeh
 
38) 38. Ibn Khallakan narrates from ‘‘Hazimi’‘ in Wafayat al-A'ian (vol. 5, p. 231):
‘‘This area is not suitable for living and its weather is extremely hot.’‘
 
39) 39. ‘‘Messenger, preach what is revealed to you from your Lord. If you will not preach, it would be as though you have not conveyed My message. God protects you from men.’‘ ( The holy Quran, 5:67).
 
40) 40. Khasa'is Nasae’i, p. 25.
 
41) 41. Sunni references: Musnad Ahmad, vol. 4, p. 372; Mu'jam al-Kabir, vol. 5, pages 202-203 Hadith #5092; al-Bidayat wa al-Nahayah, vol. 4, p. 385.
 
42)42. In Arabic sense, this narration (#41) is explained as follows:
Ibn Athir in al-Nahayah, vol. 5, p. 246, explains that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) started Dhuhr -noon- prayer when it was the hottest time of the day in that area. Moreover, Hakim Nayshaburi in al-Mustadrak A’la al-Sahihain, vol. 3, p. 533, narrates from a narrator of Ghadir -one of the companions- that: ‘‘No day was hotter than the day of Ghadir and it was the hardest for us to handle.’‘ The weather of that area was not in an ordinary situation, and thus the divine order to stop everyone in such an awkward place surely needed a legitimate reason.
 
43) 43. Sunni references: Manaqib Ibn Maghazili, p. 17. Sharh al-Maghasid al-Taftazani, vol. 5, p. 273.
Shiite references: al-Irshad, pages 93 and 94. A’lam al-Wara, p. 139. Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, p. 48. Kashf al-Yaqin p. 241.
 
44)44. Sunni references: al-Mustadrak A'la al-Sahihayn, vol. 3, p. 533. Khasa’is Nasae’i, p. 28 (with a little difference in words) Kanz al-U'mmal, vol. 1, p. 187, Hadith #953 and ...
Shiite references: al-Khisal, vol. 1, p. 66. al-Irshad, p. 94 (with a little difference in words); A’lam al-Wara Bi A'lam al-Huda, p. 139.
 
45) 45. Sunni references: Sawa’iq al-Muhriqat, p. 43. Sirat al-Halabiyah, vol. 3, p. 336. Kanz al-U'mmal, vol. 5, p. 289, Hadith #12911.
Shiite references: al-Khisal, vol. 1, p. 66. Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, p. 48-49 (with a little more in words).
 
46) 46. Sunni references: Majma' al-Zawa'id, vol. 9, p. 104 and 163. Ibn Talhah al-Shafie’i in Matalib al-Si’ool, p. 16.
 
47) Sunni references: Mustadrak A'la al-Sahihain, vol. 3, p. 109 (with a little change in words). Khasa’is Nasae’i, p. 21. Sahih al-Muslim, vol. 7, Bab Fadail Ali Ibn Abitalib p. 122 & 123. Mu'jam al-Kabir, vol. 5, p. 166 & 167, Hadith # 4971. Kanz al-U'mmal, vol. 1, p. 188 & 189, Hadith #958.
Shiite references: al-Khisal, vol. 1, p. 66 & 67. Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, p. 49 & 50.
 
48) 49. Sunni references: Majma' al-Zawa'id, vol. 9, p. 162-163. Mu'jamu al-Kabir, vol. 5, p. 167, Hadith #4971.
 
49) 49. Sunni references: Shawahid al-Tanzil, vol. 1, p. 190. Khasais Nasae’i, p. 21. Mu'jamu al-Kabir, vol. 5, p. 167, Hadith #4969. Kanz al-U'mmal, vol. 13, p. 104, Hadith #36340.
Shiite references: al-Irshad, p. 94 (The Prophet (PBUH&HP) rose the hands of Amir al-Mu’minin). A’lam al-Wara, p. 139. al-Amali Sheikh Toosi, p. 247. al-Khisal, vol. 1, p. 311.
 
50) 50. The meaning of this Prophetic saying refers to the 6th verse in chapter Ahzab of the holy Quran which says ‘‘The Prophet has more authority over the believers than themselves’‘ (33:6). The significance of the Prophet’s (PBUH&HP) authority on the very lives of believers can be understood by the teachings of Quran and Prophet Muhammad and His Progeny (PBUT). Allah says in the Quran, ‘‘The believing men and women must not feel free to do something in their affairs other than that which has been already decided for them by God and His Messenger’‘ (33:36). Since Allah is all perfect and His messenger is infallible, then the command of Allah and His Prophet has no error or mistake. Any order issued by them is ‘‘the right’‘ thing to do and not only believers should be fully obedient to this command but, they shouldn’t strive to disagreeing with that command. Furthermore, believers should not feel bad about a decision given by Allah to His Prophet. That is, when Allah commands something and reveals it to His Prophet, then there is no place for desires, preferences and decision of believers. The decision of Allah having no error will help people and guide them to the right path. This is the meaning of Allah and Prophet's authority over believers.
 
51) 51. Sunni references: Sunan Ibn Majeh, Bab Fada’il of companions, Bab Fada’il Ali Ibn Abitalib, vol. 1, p. 43, Hadith #116. Musnad Ahmad, vol. 4, p. 281. al-Mustadrak A'la al-Sahihayn, vol. 3 , p. 110. Tarikh al-Islam by Dhahabi, chapter on ‘‘caliphate’s era’‘ , pages 628, 631 & 632. al-Bidayat wa al-Nahayah, vol. 7, p. 386. Majma' al-Zawa'id, vol. 9, p. 104.
Shiite references: al-Irshad, p. 94. A’lam al-Wara, p. 139. al-Amali Sheikh Toosi, p. 247. al-Khisal, vol. 1, p. 311. Takhlis al-Shafi, vol. 2, p. 167.
 
52) 52. Sunni refrences: Sunan Ibn Majeh, Bab Fada’il of companions, Bab Fada’il Ali Ibn Abitalib, vol. 1, p. 43, Hadith #116. Musnad Ahmad, vol. 4, p. 281 and ... Tarikh al-Islam by Dhahabi, chapter on ‘‘caliphate’s era’‘ , pages 632. al-Bidayat wa al-Nahayah, vol. 7, p. 386. Fara'id al-Semtayn, Bab 13. Tarikh al-Baghdad, vol. 8, p. 290. Manaqib Kharazmi, p. 94.
Shiite references: al-Irshad, p. 94. al-Khisal, vol. 1, p. 311. Takhlis al-Shafi, vol. 2, p. 167. al-Amali Sheikh Toosi, p. 247.
 
53) 53. Sunni references: al-Mustadrak A’la al-Sahihain, vol. 3 , p. 109. al-Bidayat wa al-Nahayah, vol. 7, p. 386.
Shiite references: Kamal al-Din wa Tamam al-Ni’mah, vol. 1, p. 276. Ghaybat al-Nu’mani, p. 69. Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, p. 318.
 
54)54. Sunni references: Sunan al-Tirmidhi, vol. 5, Bab 20, p. 633, Hadith # 3713. Sunan Ibn Majeh, Chapter (bab) virtues of companions, Bab Fada’il Ali Ibn Abitalib, vol. 1, p. 43, Hadith # 116 and p. 45, Hadith # 121. Musnad Ahmad, vol. 4, p. 281, 372 and etc. al-Mustadrak A’la al-Sahihain, vol. 3, p. 109 and 110. Khasais Nasae’i, p. 22. al-Nahayah by Ibn Athir, vol. 5, p. 228. Tarikh Ibn Kathir, vol. 12, p. 219. Sawa’iq al-Muhriqat, Bab 9, Hadith # 4, p. 122. Tarikh al-Kabir, vol. 1, Ghesm 1, p. 375. al-Tanbihu wa al-Ishraf, p. 221 (With the difference that Mas’oodi narrates the event of Ghadir after the treaty of Hudaybiyah)
Shiite references: Usool al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 294 & 295 and vol. 8, p. 27. al-Irshad, p. 94. Wasa’il al-Shia, vol. 5, p. 58. A’lam al-Wara, p. 139. al-Amali Sheikh Toosi, p. 227 & 247. Takhlis al-Shafi, vol. 2, p. 167.
 
55) 55. Sunni references: Tadhkirat al-Khawas, p. 29.
Shiite references: Usool al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 294 & 295. al-Amali Sheikh Toosi, p. 247. Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, p. 50.
 
56)56. Sunni references: Sunan Ibn Majeh, chapter of virtue of companions, Bab Fada’il Ali Ibn Abitalib, vol. 1, p. 43, Hadith #116. Musnad Ahmad, vol. 1, p. 148 & 149. al-Mustadrak A'la al-Sahihayn, vol. 3, p. 109.
Musnad Ahmad, vol. 1, p. 148 & 149, vol. 4 pages 281, 372, 373, …
al-Bidayat wa al-Nahayah, vol. 7, p. 386. Sawa’iq al-Muhriqah, Bab 9, Hadith #4, p. 122. Khasais Nasae’i, p. 21, 23
Shiite references: Usool al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 294 & 295. al-Irshad p. 94; al-Amali Sheikh Toosi, p. 254 & 332. Takhlis al-Shafi, vol. 2, p. 167.
 
57) 57. Sunni references: Musnad Ahmad, vol. 1, p. 118 & 119. Shawahid al-Tanzil, vol. 1, p. 157. Majma' al-Zawa'id, vol. 9, p. 105.
Shiite references: al-Irshad, p. 94. al-Khisal, vol. 1, p. 66 and vol. 2, p. 479. Takhlis al-Shafi, vol. 2, p. 167.
 
58) 58. Shiite references: Usool al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 289. Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 1, p. 50.
 
59) 59. A part of 3rd verse: ‘‘On this day I have perfected your religion, completed My favors to you, and have chosen Islam as your religion...’‘ (The holy Quran, 5:3).
 
60) 60. Sunni references: Shawahid al-Tanzil, vol. 1, p. 157 & 158. Manaqib Kharazmi, p. 80.
Shiite references: Kamal al-Din, vol. 1, p. 277.
 
61) 61. Sunni references: Musnad Ahmad, vol. 4, p. 281. Tarikh al-Islam by Dhahabi, chapter on ‘‘caliphate’s era’‘ , p. 633. al-Nahayah by Ibn Athir, vol. 5, p. 228. Tarikh al-Baghdad, vol. 8, p. 290. al-Bidayat wa al-Nahayah, vol. 7, p. 386. Manaqib Kharazmi, p. 94. Kanz al-U'mmal, vol. 13, p. 134.
Shiite references: al-Irshad, p. 94. A’lam al-Wara, p. 139. Kashf al-Yaqin, p. 250
 
62) 62. If you are intrested to see the poem in original language, please refer to the Arabic/Persian section of our website.
 
63) 63. Sunni references: Tadhkirat al-Khawas, p. 33. Manaqib Kharazmi, p.s 80-81. Fara'id al-Semtayn, vol. 1, Samt 1, Bab 12, Hadith # 39-40 and pages 73-75. Kifayat al-Talib, p. 64.
Shiite references: al-Irshad, p. 94 and 95. A’lam al-Wara, p. 139 and 140 al-Amali Saduq, p. 460 (majlis 84). Khasa'is al-A'immah, p. 42.